AN OVERVIEW OF AQUACULTURE DEVELOPMENT IN VIET NAM
Keywords:aquaculture, driving forces, history, sustainable development, Viet Nam
Aquaculture has been successfully practiced in Viet Nam for centuries, but the sector still faces sustainable development challenges. This paper aims to briefly review the aquaculture development in Viet Nam, including history, the status of farming systems and key challenges to sustainable development. The sector was diversified in cultured species and environment, farming systems, intensified levels and consumed markets. Aquaculture has contributed significantly to the development of the country economy in terms of food security, income generation, restructure strategy in agriculture, international trade as well as the implementation of hunger alleviation and poverty reduction program. In 2019, aquaculture accounted for 54.31% of the total fisheries outputs (8.27 million MT); in which cultured fish accounted for 69.86% and cultured shrimp for 20.04% of aquaculture production (4.49 million MT). Among geo-ecological zones of aquaculture, the Mekong River delta has the highest potential for development due to its favorable conditions. In 2019, the region accounted for around 72% of the total national aquaculture area and 70% of the total production; in which 71% and 84% of fish and shrimp production, respectively. The sector has contributed about 65-70% of seafood export values yearly. In 2020, the seafood export value of Viet Nam reached 8.5 billion USD. The country aquaculture was highly developed during the last three decades, particularly of striped catfish and marine shrimp farming, and driven by many factors such as state development policies, international collaboration, technological adaptation, etc. However, the sector is still facing challenges of sustainable development on disease control, environmental pollution, certification, small-scale household exclusion, etc.
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