Effects of Fish Farming on Sediment, Water Quality and Plankton Communities in Barobo Coastal Waters in Lianga Bay, Surigao Del Sur, Philippines


  • GA Rasonable Graduate Studies Department, Caraga State University, Philippines
  • RA Seronay Graduate Studies Department, Faculty, Caraga State University, Philippines
  • GA Asufre Department of Agriculture-Caraga, Philippines




Mariculture, spatial distribution, physicochemical parameters, fish farm, plankton


The study was conducted to establish the effect of fish farming on plankton communities, water quality and sediment in Barobo Coastal Waters in Lianga Bay Philippines. Plankton, water, and sediment samples were collected during northeast monsoon period (November, December, and February) within the fish farms; transition zone (in-between fish farm and outside) and outside the mariculture zone. Two stations were established per zone. Results showed that a total of 245 taxa, 66 genera and 90,532 individuals of phytoplankton, while zooplankton had 306 taxa, 192 genera and 10,984 individuals were recorded across sampling stations for the entire sampling periods. There were no significant differences except for abundance/richness noted on the diversity of both phytoplankton and zooplankton communities between stations indicating that mariculture activities have no effects on the plankton communities. For the water quality parameters, water temperature, salinity, ammoniacalN, dissolved organic phosphorous and potassium did not vary significantly (p>0.05) while pH, transparency, velocity, DO and TSS vary significantly (p<0.05) between the stations. For the sediments, only N2 (p=0.051) showed no significant difference while the rest of the parameters such as pH (p<0.000), texture (p<0.000), Organic Matter % (p<0.000), available P (p<0.000) and extractable K (p<0.000) showed significant differences between stations. Most of the physicochemical parameters of water and sediments were significantly higher than the transition and outside mariculture zones which indicates that the water and sediment quality measured within the fish farm area were deteriorating. This finding may also imply that transition and outside mariculture zone has not yet affected by the fish farming activities. Despite the low degree of impact detected within the mariculture zone, the organic matter carrying capacity should be carefully determined to avoid environmental drawbacks, thus regular monitoring on the sediment and water quality is recommended.

Author Biography

RA Seronay, Graduate Studies Department, Faculty, Caraga State University, Philippines

Professor Director of Extension Services  Director of the Center for Research in Environmental Management and Eco-Governance Caraga State University Contact number: +63 917 648 6639


Afonso P, Fontes J, Holland K.N. and Santos R.S. (2009). Multi-scale patterns of habitat use in a highly mobile reef fish, the white trevally PseudoJackfish dentex, and their implications for marine reserve design. Mar Ecol Prog Ser. 381:273–86.

A'yun , Q., & Takarina, N. D. (2017). Ambient temperature effects on growth of milkfish (Chanos chanos) at aquaculture. AIP Conference Proceedings, 1862, 030117. Depok, Indonesia. doi:https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4991221

Barić, A., Matijević, S., & Kušpilić, G. (2006). Impact of a fish farm on physical and chemical properties of sediment and water column in the middle Adriatic Sea(Conference Paper). Fresenius Environmental Bulletin, 15(9A), 1058-1063.

Breitburg, D. L., Hondorp, D. W., Davias, L. A., & Diaz, R. J. (2009). Hypoxia, Nitrogen, and Fisheries: Integrating Effects Across Local and Global Landscapes. Annual Review of Marine Science, 1(1), 329–349. https://doi.org/10.1146/ANNUREV.MARINE.010908.163754

Bricker, S., Longstaff, B. Dennison, W., Jones, A., Boicourt, K., Wicks, C. & Woerner J. (2007). Effects of nutrient enrichment in the Nation‟s estuaries: A Decade of Change. NOAA Coastal Ocean Program Decision Analysis Series No. 26. National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, Silver Spring, Maryland. 328 p.

Carmelo, T. R. 1997. "Identifying Marine Phytoplankton." Edited by T. R. Carmelo. Academic Press 858.

Castellani, Claudia, Edwards, and Martin [eds.]. 2017. Marine Plankton: A Practical Guide to Ecology, Methodology, and Taxonomy. ISBN 978‐0‐19‐923326‐7. Edited by Martin [eds.]. Oxford: Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199233267.001.0001, 704 p.

Chen, Y.S., Beveridge, M.C.M. & Telfer, T.C. (2000). Settling rate characteristics and nutrient content of the faeces of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., and the implications for modeling of solid waste dispersion. Aquaculture Research, 30, 395-398.

Dalsgaard, T., and D. Krause-Jensen. 2006. "Monitoring nutrient release from fish farms with macroalgal and phytoplankton bioassays." Aquaculture 256: 302-210. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2006.02.047.

Dodds, W. K. (2002). Freshwater Ecology Concepts and Environmental Applications Aquatic Ecology (Vol. 1, pp. 245-266). N.p.: Academic Presss. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-219135-0.X5000-4

Effendi H 2003 Telaah Kualitas Air Bagi Pengelolaan Sumber Daya dan Lingkungan Perairan. Kanisius, Yogyakarta.

Gonzalez, Josefa, Ferran Casals, and Alfredo Ruiz. 2004. "Duplicative and Conservative Transpositions of Larval serum protein 1 Genes in the Genus Drosophila." Genetics Society of America (Departament de Gen`tica i de Microbiologia, Universitat Auto `noma de Barcelona). doi: 10.1534/genetics.103.025916.

Fernandes, T. F., A. Eleftheriou, H. Ackefors, M. Eleftheriou, A. Ervik, A. Sanchez-Mata, T. Scanlon, et al. 2001. "The scientific principles underlying the monitoring of the environmental impacts of aquaculture." J. Appl. Ichthyol. 17 (4): 181-193. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/S0044-8486(03)00474-5.

Furukawa, K., Wolanski, E., & Mueller, H. (1996). Currents and Sediment Transport in Mangrove Forests. Mangroves and Salt Marshes, 1(1). SPB Academic Publishing bv, Amsterdam.

Hakanson, L., Ervik, A., Maekinen, T., and Moeller B. Basic concepts concerning assessments of environmental effects of marine fish farms. Nordic Council of Ministers, Copenhagen. 1988.

Hall, P.O.J, S. Kollberg, and M.O. Samuelsson. 2008. "Chemical fluxes and mass balances in a marine fish cage farm. IV. Nitrogen." Marine Ecology Progress (89): 81-91.

Handeland, S.O., Imsland, A.K. & Stefansson, S.O. (2008). Aquaculture 283, 36-42.

Holby, O., and P.O. Hall. 1991. "Chemical fluxes and mass balances in a marine fish cage farm. II. Phosphorus." Marine Ecology Progress Series 70: 263-272.

Holmer, M., Marba, N., Duarte, C.M., Terrados, J. & Fortes, M.D. (2002). Impact of milkfish (Chanos chanos) aquaculture on carbon and nutrient fluxes in the Bolonao area, Philippines, Marine Pollution Bulletin 44, 685-696.

Hu, S., Guo, Z., Xu, C., Huang, H., Liu, S. & Lin, J. (2015). Plankton Res, 37, 2.

Katranidis, S., E. Nitsi, and A. Vakrou. 2003. "Social acceptability of aquaculture development in coastal areas: the case of two Greek Islands." Coastal Management 31: 37-53.

Kim, J. and Kim, G. (2015). “Importance of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) inputs from the deep sea to the euphotic zone: Results from the East (Japan) Sea.” Study published in the journal Marine Chemistry. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0304420315000043

Kirk,J.T.O. (1994). Light and Photosynthesis in Aquatic Ecosystems, 2nd edn. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

Kolo, R. J., R. O. Ojutiku, and D. T. Musulmi. 2010. "Plankton Communities of Tagwai Dam Minna, Nigeria." Continental J. Fisheries and Aquatic Science (Wilolud Journals 4: 1-7.

Kungvankij, P., Pudadera, B. J. Jr., Tiro, L. B. & Potestas, I. O. (1984). Biology and culture of seabass (Laces calcarifer). NACA Training Manual Series, 3: 67 pp.

Li, Y. , and B. Hewett. "Measurement of Seawater Average Velocity using Water Bottom Multiples from VSP Surveys." Paper presented at the 2015 SEG Annual Meeting, New Orleans, Louisiana, October 2015.

Marañón, E. (2015). Cell size as a key determinant of phytoplankton metabolism and community structure. Annu. Rev. Mar. Sci. 7, 241–264. doi: 10.1146/annurev-marine-010814-015955

Matijevic, Slavica, Grozdan Kusˇpilic, Zorana Kljakovic´-Gasˇpic, and Danijela Bogner. 2008. "Impact of fish farming on the distribution of phosphorus in sediments in the middle Adriatic sea." Marine Pollution Bulletin (Science Direct) 56: 535-548.

Moncheva, S. 2010. "Manual for Phytoplankton Sampling and Analysis in the Black Sea." Institute of Oceanology (Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Varna, 9000, P.O. Box 152).

Nash, C.E. 2001. "The net-pen salmon farming industry in the Pacific Northwest." United Nations Department of Commerce, NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-NWFSC-46, 125pp., Washington, D.C.

Parakkasi, P., Rani, C., Syam, R., Zainuddin, & Achmad, M. (2020). Growth response and quality of seaweed Kappaphycus alvarezii cultivated in various coastal ecosystems in the waters of west Sulawesi, Indonesia. AACL Bioflux, 13(2), 627–639.

Parsons, T. R., Y. Maita, and C. M. Lalli. 1984. "Counting media and preservatives. In: A manual of chemical and biological methods for seawater analysis." Pergamon Press 163.

Pawar, V., O. Matsuda, and N. Fujisaki. 2002. "Relationship between feed input and sediment quality of fish cage farms." Fisheries Science (Fisheries) 68: 894-903.

Pearson, T. H., and K.D. Black. 2001. The environmental impacts of marine fish cage culture. In: Black KD (ed) Environmental impacts of aquaculture. Academic Press and CRC Press, Sheffield, UK, 1-32.

Perlman, H. (2014, March). Sediment and Suspended Sediment. In The USGS Water Science School. Retrieved from http://water.usgs.gov/edu/sediment.html

Pillay, TV. R. 1992. "Aquaculture principles and practices." In Fishing New Books. Oxford.

Reynolds, R. A., Stramski, D., and Neukermans, G. (2016). Optical backscattering by particles in Arctic seawater and relationships to particle mass concentration,size distribution, and bulk composition. Limnol. Oceanogr. 61, 1869–1890. doi: 10.1002/lno.10341

Ruttenberg, K. C. 1992. "Development of a sequential extraction method for different forms of phosphorus in marine sediments." Limnol. Oceanogr. 37: 1460-1482.

Ruttenberg, K. C., Dyhrman, S. T. J. (2005). Geophys. Res.-Oceans 110, C10S13.

San Diego-McGlone , M. L., R. V. Aranza, C. L. Villanoy, and G. S. Jacinto. 2008. "Eutrophic waters, algal bloom and fish kill in fish farming areas in Bolinao, Pangasinan, Philippines." Marine Pollution Bulletion 57: 295-301.

Sanz-Lázaro, C., Valdemarsen, T., and Holmer, M. 2015. Effects of temperature and organic pollution on nutrient cycling in marine sediments. Biogeosciences, 12, 4565–4575, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-12-4565-2015

SkejicŁ, Sanda , Ivona MarasovicŁ, Grozdan Kus›pilicŁ, Ivana Ninc›evicŁ , Ivana Gladan Ninc›evicŁ , Stefanija SestanovicŁ, and Natalija Bojanic . 2011. "Effects of cage fish farming on phytoplankton community structure, biomass and primary production in an aquaculture area in the middle of Adriatic Sea." Aquaculture Research 42: 1393-1405.

Torres, S. M., & Santos, B. S. (2018). Species Identification Among Morphologically-Similar Caranx species. Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 20(2), 159-169. doi: http://doi.org/10.4194/1303-2712-v20_2_08

Villa, I., V. H. Mar, and P. Acuna. 2008. "Short-term responses of phytoplankton to nutrient enrichment and planktivorous fish predation in a temperate South American mesotrophic reservoir." Hydrobiologia 600: 131-128.

Wang, Z., J. Zhao, Zhang Y., and Y. Cao. 2009. "Phytoplankton community structure and environmental parameters in aquaculture areas of Daya Bay, South China Sea." Journal of Environmental Sciences 21: 1268-1275.

World Bank. 2013. Fish to 2030: prospects for fisheries and aquaculture. Agriculture and environmental services, discussion paper 3., Washington, D.C.: World Bank Group, Report 83177-GLB.

Wu, R.S. S. 1995. "The environmental impact of marine fish culture: towards a sustainable future." Mar Pollut Bull 31: 159-145.

Yigit, Erbay, Pedro J. Batista, Yanxia Bei, Ka Ming Pang, Chun-Chieh G. Chen, Niraj H. Tolia, Leemor Joshua-Tor, Shohei Mitani, Martin J. Simard, and Craig C. Mello. 2006. "Analysis of the C. elegans Argonaute Family Reveals that Distinct Argonautes Act Sequentially during RNAi." A Cell Press Journal (Cell.com) 127 (4): 747-757. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2006.09.033.

Yongli Gao , Kedong Yin , Lei He & Paul J. Harrison (2012) Phytoplankton growth on organic nutrients from trash fish, Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management, 15:2, 234-240. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14634988.2012.687567

Yucel-Gier, G., O. Uslu, and N. Bizsel. 2008. "Effects of fish farming on nutrient composition and plankton communities in the Eastern Aegean Sea (Turkey)." Aquaculture Research 56: 181-194.

Chen, et al. (2006). “Monitoring turbidity in Tampa Bay using MODIS/Aqua 250-m imagery.” Study published in Remote Sensing of Environment. Retrieved from http://optics.marine.usf.edu/~hu/scratch/Qingdao/pdfs/0109_Chen_etal_RSE_2007a.pdf

Dalsgaard, T., and D. Krause-Jensen. 2006. "Monitoring nutrient release from fish farms with macroalgal and phytoplankton bioassays." Aquaculture 256: 302-210. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2006.02.047.

EPA. (2012). 5.5 Turbidity. In Water: Monitoring & Assessment. Retrieved from http://water.epa.gov/type/rsl/monitoring/vms55.cfm

Sournia, A. 1978. "Phytoplankton manual." "Monographs on Oceanographic Methodology", UNESCO 6: 337.

Verlecar, X. N., and S. R. Desai. 2004. "Phytoplankton Identification Manual."

ALPHA. 1998. "Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater." Washington DC: American Public Health Association, American Water Works Association and Water Environmental


BFAR-PHILMINAQ. 2007. Managing aquaculture and its impacts a guidebook for local governments. Diliman, Quezon City: Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources BFAR-PHILMINAQ Project.

DENR Administrative Order no. 2016-08. Water Quality Guidelines and Effluent Standards 2016. via https://emb.gov.ph

DENR Administrative Order no. 2021-19. Updated Water Quality Guidelines (WQG) and General Effluent Standards (GES) for Selected Parameters. via https://emb.gov.ph

FAO. 2012. The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture. Roma: Food and Agriculture Organization of United Nations, 230. Accessed Aug 17, 2017.

Horiba. (n.d.). Determination of Potassium in Sea Water. In Laqua Horiba Manual. https://www.horiba.com/sgp/water-quality/applications/water-wastewater/determination-of-potassium-in-sea-water/

Lenntech. (n.d). Potassium and water: Reaction mechanisms, environmental impact and health effects. https://www.lenntech.com/periodic/water/potassium/potassium-and water.htm#ixzz7hVYnEolc

Philippine Statistics Authority (PSA). 2020. Caraga Fisheries Production 2019. Inforgraphics Series R-1304013, Philippine Statistics Authority, Caraga's Statistical Tidbits. http://rssocaraga.psa.gov.ph/sites/default/files/Infographics%20R1304013%20Fisheries%202019%20Final.jpg.

SSSA. (1996). doi:https://doi.org/10.2136/sssabookser5.3.c37

USEPA. 2022. Understanding the Science of Ocean and Coastal Acidification. https://www.epa.gov/ocean-acidification/understanding-science-ocean-and-coastal-acidification.

USDA. 2021. Soil pH: Inherent factors affecting soil pH, Soil Health Guide for Educators. Natural Resources Conversation Service. https://cropwatch.unl.edu/documents/USDA_NRCS_pH_guide_edit_6_3_14.




How to Cite

Rasonable, G., Seronay, R., & Asufre, G. (2023). Effects of Fish Farming on Sediment, Water Quality and Plankton Communities in Barobo Coastal Waters in Lianga Bay, Surigao Del Sur, Philippines. Proceedings International Conference on Fisheries and Aquaculture, 8(1), 1–22. https://doi.org/10.17501/23861282.2023.8101