COMORBIDITIES AND QUALITY OF LIFE IN PEOPLE WITH STAGE 2 HYPERTENSION: A STUDY IN YOGYAKARTA, INDONESIA
Keywords:hypertension, quality of life, comorbidity, rural community
Hypertension is a major public health issue throughout the world, including in Indonesia. Quality of life has been assessed in patients with hypertension, but few data have been reported from community settings. This study assessed the relationships between comorbidities and quality of life in people with stage 2 hypertension in an Indonesian rural community. This questionnaire-based study included 108 people (aged 45 years or older) living in a rural community who was diagnosed with stage 2 hypertension >6 months before the study began. The abbreviated version of the World Health Organization Quality of Life Instrument was applied to measure the quality of life. This instrument comprises four domains of quality life: physical health, psychological health, social relationships, and environmental health. Among the 108 participants, 73 (67%) self-reported having the comorbid disease; cardiovascular diseases, endocrine disorders, and musculoskeletal disorders were the most common. Only 31 (29%) reported having a good quality of life in the physical health domain (score ³60 on the quality-of-life instrument). The percentages of participants reporting good quality of life were 37 (35%), 50 (47%), and 48 (44%) for the domain’s psychological health, social relationships, and environmental health domains, respectively. A higher score for the comorbidities index was associated with lower quality of life (p<0.05). These findings suggest that the quality of life among rural people with stage 2 hypertension worsens with increasing comorbidities. Health and social support should be strengthened to help these people.
Agborsangaya, C. B., Lau, D., Lahtinen, M., Cooke, T., & Johnson, J. A. (2012). Multimorbidity prevalence and patterns across socioeconomic determinants: a cross-sectional survey. BMC Public Health, 12(1), 1–8.
Chantakeeree, C., Sormunen, M., Estola, M., Jullamate, P., & Turunen, H. (2021). Factors Affecting Quality of Life among Older Adults with Hypertension in Urban and Rural Areas in Thailand: A Cross-Sectional Study. The International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 00914150211050880.
Charlson, M. E., Pompei, P., Ales, K. L., & MacKenzie, C. R. (1987). A new method of classifying prognostic comorbidity in longitudinal studies: development and validation. Journal of Chronic Diseases, 40(5), 373–383.
Fortin, M., Stewart, M., Poitras, M.-E., Almirall, J., & Maddocks, H. (2012). A systematic review of prevalence studies on multimorbidity: toward a more uniform methodology. The Annals of Family Medicine, 10(2), 142–151.
Garin, N., Olaya, B., Moneta, M. V., Miret, M., Lobo, A., Ayuso-Mateos, J. L., & Haro, J. M. (2014). Impact of multimorbidity on disability and quality of life in the Spanish older population. PloS One, 9(11), e111498.
Huang, Y., Gou, R., Diao, Y., Yin, Q., Fan, W., Liang, Y., Chen, Y., Wu, M., Zang, L., & Li, L. (2014). Charlson comorbidity index helps predict the risk of mortality for patients with type 2 diabetic nephropathy. Journal of Zhejiang University Science B, 15(1), 58–66.
Hussain, M. A., Al Mamun, A., Reid, C., & Huxley, R. R. (2016). Prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of hypertension in Indonesian adults aged≥ 40 Years: Findings from the Indonesia Family Life Survey (IFLS). PloS One, 11(8), e0160922.
Hussain, M. A., Huxley, R. R., & Al Mamun, A. (2015). Multimorbidity prevalence and pattern in Indonesian adults: an exploratory study using national survey data. BMJ Open, 5(12), e009810.
Khairunisa, S. M., & Akhmad, A. D. (2019). Quality of Life of patients with hypertension in primary helath care in Bandar Lampung. Indonesian Journal of Pharmacy, 30(4), 309–315.
Mannan, A., Akter, K. M., Akter, F., Chy, N. U. H. A., Alam, N., Pinky, S. D., Chowdhury, A. F. M., Biswas, P., Chowdhury, A. S., & Hossain, M. A. (2022). Association between comorbidity and health-related quality of life in a hypertensive population: a hospital-based study in Bangladesh. BMC Public Health, 22(1), 1–12.
Mills, K. T., Stefanescu, A., & He, J. (2020). The global epidemiology of hypertension. Nature Reviews Nephrology, 16(4), 223–237. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41581-019-0244-2
Ministry of Health Republic of Indonesia. (2019). Report of the 2018 Indonesia Basic Health Research (Laporan Nasional Riset Kesehatan dasar Indonesia tahun 2018. In Ministry of Health, Jakarta.
Noh, J., Kim, H. C., Shin, A., Yeom, H., Jang, S.-Y., Lee, J. H., Kim, C., & Suh, I. (2016). Prevalence of comorbidity among people with hypertension: the Korea National health and nutrition examination survey 2007-2013. Korean Circulation Journal, 46(5), 672–680.
Nurbasari, N. A., Gondodiputro, S., & Dwipa, L. (2019). The elderly’s quality of life in the Panti Werdha and the Community of Bandung City: WHOQOL-BREF and WHOQOL-OLD Indonesian version. Share: Social Work Journal, 9(2), 219–228.
Perwitasari, D. A., Susilo, R., Supadmi, W., & Kaptein, A. A. (2015). Adherence and quality of life of hypertension patients in gunung jati hospital, cirebon, indonesia. Indonesian Journal of Clinical Pharmacy, 4(4).
Peter, O. A., Joshua, E. F., Daughter, O. A. E., & Nelson, E. C. (2017). Co-Morbidities of Patients with Hypertension Admitted to Amassoma General Hospital, Bayelsa State South-South of Nigeria. Global Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2(4), 86–91.
Rowan, C. G., Flory, J., Stempniewicz, N., Cuddeback, J., & Brunelli, S. M. (2015). Stage 2 hypertension: predictors of failure to achieve blood pressure control and the impact of adding one additional antihypertensive class. Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety, 24(11), 1170–1179.
Salim, O. C., Sudharma, N. I., Kusumaratna, R. K., & Hidayat, A. (2007). Validitas dan reliabilitas World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF untuk mengukur kualitas hidup lanjut usia. Universa Medicina, 26(1), 27–38.
Sekeon, S. A., Kalesaran, A. F., & Kandou, G. D. (2017). The association between hypertension and quality of life among elderly: A population based comparison study with general population in Tomohon, Indonesia. Glob. J. Med. Public Health, 6, 1–6.
Shrestha, P. L., Shrestha, P. A., & Vivo, R. P. (2016). Epidemiology of comorbidities in patients with hypertension. Current Opinion in Cardiology, 31(4), 376–380.
Silva, P. A. B., Soares, S. M., Santos, J. F. G., & Silva, L. B. (2014). Cut-off point for WHOQOL-bref as a measure of quality of life of older adults. Revista de Saude Publica, 48, 390–397.
Skevington, S. M., Lotfy, M., & O’Connell, K. A. (2004). The World Health Organization’s WHOQOL-BREF quality of life assessment: psychometric properties and results of the international field trial. A report from the WHOQOL group. Quality of Life Research, 13(2), 299–310.
Sulistiawati, S., Dewanti, L., Pratama, A. P., Atika, A., Fatmaningrum, W., Nuswantoro, D., Octora, T. N., Pradnyaparamitha, D. A., & Rizqi, F. A. (2020). Profile and Lifestyle of Hypertensive Patients, Cardiovascular Comorbidity, and Complications in a Primary Health Center in Surabaya, Indonesia. Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences, 8(E), 219–223.
Trevisol, D. J., Moreira, L. B., Kerkhoff, A., Fuchs, S. C., & Fuchs, F. D. (2011). Health-related quality of life and hypertension: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. Journal of Hypertension, 29(2), 179–188.
World Health Organization. (1998). Programme on mental health: WHOQOL user manual. World Health Organization.
World Health Organization. (2016). International statistical classification of diseases : 10th revision. https://icd.who.int/browse10/2016/en
Yani, D. I., Selviya, D., & Sumarni, N. (2021). Description Quality of Life Among Patients with Hipertension. Jurnal Keperawatan, 13(1), 165–172.
Ye, R., Liu, K., Zhang, Z., Gong, S., & Chen, X. (2018). Health-related quality of life of hypertension in China: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine, 19(8), 430–438.
You, X., Zhang, Y., Zeng, J., Wang, C., Sun, H., Ma, Q., Ma, Y., & Xu, Y. (2019). Disparity of the Chinese elderly’s health-related quality of life between urban and rural areas: a mediation analysis. BMJ Open, 9(1), e024080.
Zygmuntowicz, M., Owczarek, A., Elibol, A., & Chudek, J. (2012). Comorbidities and the quality of life in hypertensive patients. Polskie Archiwum Medycyny Wewnetrznej, 122(7–8), 333–340.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2022 Riana Rahmawati, Ahmad AM
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.