• Mohammad Zulfikar Ali Institute of Education and Research (IER), University of Rajshahi, Bangladesh
Keywords: Bangladesh, primary education, students with disabilities, inclusive education


Inclusion is a globally recognized educational philosophy that ensures opportunities and participation of all students along with students with disabilities  in all aspects of  school life. The United Nations has recently set target (Goal 4) of the SDGs ensuring quality, equitable and inclusive education for all by the year 2030. Over the years Bangladesh has responded to the international declarations to ensure and promote inclusive education. It is developing model inclusive primary schools across the country. However, many children with disabilities in Bangladesh are still facing exclusion. Data of this phenomenological study were collected from forty school teachers from fifteen  primary schools through FGD and questionnaire guided interviews. Ten classroom teaching were observed and the parents, students, the community people and concerned education officers were interviewed. The social constructivist theory and system theory constructed the theoretical framework of the study. The research found challenges of training, study materials and assistive devices, funds, rigid curriculum and weak coordination among community and schools. It recommended holistic approach and good collaboration among community and school to meet the challenges. The findings might regenerate in depth understanding on inclusive education for policy implementers and other researchers from the context of Bangladesh.


Ahsan, M. T.( 2013) National baseline study for developing a model of inclusive education in Bangladesh project based on secondary data, Dhaka: Quality Primary Education Programme PLAN Bangladesh.

Ainscow, M. & Miles, S. ( 2008). Making education for all inclusive: where next? Prospects, 38, 15-34.

DPE (2011). Third primary education development program ( PEDP3): Main document. Dhaka: DPE.

Idol, L. (2006). Toward inclusion of special education in general education. Remedial & Special Education, 27, 77-94.

Irby, J. B., Brown, G., Alecio, R. F. & Jackson, S. (2013). The handbook of Educational Theories. Charlote, North Carolina

Islam, M.M., Developing a Model of Inclusive Education in Bangladesh, Zero Project Conference 2016 Vienna, Austria, February 11, 2016.

Kim, J ( 2011). Influence of teacher preparation programs on pre service teachers' attitudes towards inclusion. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 15(3), 355 -377.

Ministry of Education (2010), The national education policy 2010 . Dhaka: Government of Bangladesh

Mitchell, D. (2014). What really works in special and inclusive education: Using evidence-based teaching strategies. Second edition. Abingdon Oxon: Routledge

Regmi, N.P.(2017). Inclusive Education in Nepal from Theory to Practice, Ludwig-Maximilians-University.

UN(2015). Sustainable development goals: 17 goals to transform our world. UN. Retrieved from :

UNESCO. (1994), The Salamanca statement and framework for action on special needs education. Salamanca, Spain

UNESCO (2009). Inclusive education: The way of the future. Final Report of the International Conference of Education ( 48th Session). Paris: UNESCO.

Westwood, P.(2013). Inclusive and adaptive Teaching: Meeting the challenges of diversity in the classroom. London: Routledge.

How to Cite
Ali, M. (2018). INCLUSIVE PRIMARY EDUCATION IN BANGLADESH FOCUSING STUDENTS WITH DISABILITIES. Proceedings of the World Disability & Rehabilitation Conference, 2(1), 21-32.