Socio-Legal Perspectives of Climate Displaced Persons in Bangladesh

  • Moumita Das Gupta Supreme Court of Bangladesh (High Court Division)
Keywords: climate displacement, climate displaced persons, displacement, legal protection

Abstract

Climate change is causing loss of homestead and livelihood of the people of affected areas all over the world. They are being compelled to desert their homes and locality to secure self-existence and thus being displaced, which is known as climate displacement and these people are being marked as climate displaced persons. This study is aimed to ascertain vulnerability of climate displaced persons of Bangladesh and to discuss the measures essential to ensure their protection. It is an analytical and mixed method research having convergent and parallel design. Area of study was Chattogram or Chittagong District. Field study was comprised of a survey, case studies, FGD, KII and applications of right to information (RTI). Finding shows, in Bangladesh this community got no legal recognition by any parliamentary enactment. Though there are a few projects to facilitate people in distress which may provide for this community also, still, no criteria are specified to ascertain the beneficiaries. Steps should be taken to meet their immediate needs like foods, drinking water and sanitation; mid-term wants like alternative employment generation and long term protections like rehabilitation. Both government and non-government bodies should pursue the international community to attain a common consensus about this issue.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Ahmed, Rafique and Shamsuddin, S. Dara, 2011,“Climate Change Issues and Perspectives of Bangladesh”, Sahitya Prakash, Dhaka, Bangladesh (Editorial).

Alam, M.Shah, 2007,“Enforcement of Human Rights Law by Domestic Courts”, New Warsi Book Corporation, Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Alluvial Lands Act, 1920, (Act No. V of 1920), in: Bangladesh Code, Volume VII, January, 2007, Government of the Peoples’ Republic of Bangladesh, Ministry of Law, Justice and Parliamentary Affairs

Ashrayan Project (Shelter Providing Project), Website of Office of the Prime Minister, Date of access: 12/03/2019, http://www.ashrayaanpmo.gov.bd/

Assessment Report 5 or AR5 of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 2014, Website of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Date of access: 12/03/2019, https://www.ipcc.ch/assessment-report/ar5/

Bangladesh Climate Change Strategy and Action Plan, 2009, Date of access: 12/03/2019 https://www.iucn.org/downloads/bangladesh_climate_change_strategy_and_action_plan_2009.pdf

Bangladesh Environment Conservation Act, 1995 (Act No. 1 of 1995) (Amendment, 2002), in: Bangladesh Gazette, 1995 and Bangladesh Gazette, 2002

Banglapedia on Sea Level Change, Date of access: 12/03/2019 http://en.banglapedia.org/index.php?title=Sea_Level_Change

Charter of the United Nations, in: Collection of International and Regional Instruments related to Refugee Protection, 2007, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), Dhaka, Bangladesh

Chowdhury, Dr. M M Emran and Majumder, Ahmad Kamruzzaman, 2008, Dictionary of Environment (A Book of Environmental Terms and Definitions), Metro Media (Pvt.) Ltd., Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Climate Change Trust Act, 2010, (Act No. LVII of 2010), Bangladesh Gazette, 2010

Climate Victims Rehabilitation Project (CVRP) or Gucchogram-2nd phase, Website of Ministry of Land, Date of access: 12/03/2019, https://minland.gov.bd/site/project/22251e69-5eb0-43ad-891f-98cd3ac5f0ee/%E0%A6%97%E0%A7%81%E0%A6%9A%E0%A7%8D%E0%A6%9B%E0%A6%97%E0%A7%8D%E0%A6%B0%E0%A6%BE%E0%A6%AE-%E0%A7%A8%E0%A7%9F-%E0%A6%AA%E0%A6%B0%E0%A7%8D%E0%A6%AF%E0%A6%BE%E0%A7%9F-%E0%A6%B8%E0%A6%BF%E0%A6%AD%E0%A6%BF%E0%A6%86%E0%A6%B0%E0%A6%AA%E0%A6%BF-%E0%A6%AA%E0%A7%8D%E0%A6%B0%E0%A6%95%E0%A6%B2%E0%A7%8D%E0%A6%AA

Constitution of the Peoples Republic of Bangladesh, 1972 (as amended up to date), Government of Peoples’ Republic of Bangladesh, Ministry of Law, Justice and Parliamentary Affairs

Convention Relating to the Status of Refuges, 1951, in: Collection of International and Regional Instruments related to Refugee Protection, 2007, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), Dhaka, Bangladesh

Das Gupta, Moumita, 2017, ‘Quest for Legal Enactments Ensuring Social Welfare for Climate Displaced Persons of Bangladesh’, Fellowship Report, Bangladesh Legal Aid and Services Trust (BLAST), Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Disaster Management Act, 2012, (Act No. 34 of 2012), in: Bangladesh Gazette, 2012

Disaster Management Policy, 2015, Website of Ministry Disaster Management and Relief, Date of access: 12/03/2019 https://modmr.portal.gov.bd/sites/default/files/files/modmr.portal.gov.bd/policies/d95dd631_9f63_4ac1_8229_a606ec84fb54/Published%20DM%20Policy%202015.pdf

Disaster Management Rules, 2015, in: Bangladesh Gazette, 2015

Displacement Solutions, About the Bangladesh HLP Initiative, Date of access: 12/03/2019, displacementsolutions.org/ds-initiatives/climate-change-and-displacement-initiative/bangladesh-climate-displacement/

Employment Generation Programme for the Poorest, EGPP Implementation Guide, Website of Ministry Disaster Management and Relief, Date of access: 12/03/2019, https://modmr.portal.gov.bd/sites/default/files/files/modmr.portal.gov.bd/policies/1512ea75_be6c_4928_99da_4de349c18508/egpp%20implementation%20Guideline%202013-14.pdf

Forced Migration review, Climate Change and Displacement, Issue 31, October 2008, Date of access: 12/03/2019 https://www.fmreview.org/sites/fmr/files/FMRdownloads/en/FMRpdfs/FMR31/FMR31.pdf

Guideline Principles on Internal Displacement, 1998, in: Collection of International and Regional Instruments related to Refugee Protection, 2007, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), Dhaka, Bangladesh

International Convention on the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families, 1990, in: Collection of International and Regional Instruments related to Refugee Protection, 2007, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), Dhaka, Bangladesh

International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, 1966, in: Collection of International and Regional Instruments related to Refugee Protection, 2007, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), Dhaka, Bangladesh

International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, 1966, in: Collection of International and Regional Instruments related to Refugee Protection, 2007, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), Dhaka, Bangladesh

Millennium Development Goals, 2000, Website of United Nations Development Programme, Date of access: 12/03/2019, https://www.undp.org/content/undp/en/home/sdgoverview/mdg_goals.html

Naser, M M and Afroz T., 2009, Human rights implications of climate change induced displacement. Bond L. Review, 21, p.i.

Naser, M.M., 2013. Protecting climate change induced displacement in Bangladesh: legal and policy responses.

National Land Use Policy, 2001, Website of Ministry of Land, Date of access: 12/03/2019 https://minland.portal.gov.bd/sites/default/files/files/minland.portal.gov.bd/page/675e1ca9_df70_466b_8f48_5448c5195ac8/NationalLandUsePolicy2001.pdf

National Plan for Disaster Management, 2010-2015, Date of access: 12/03/2019 https://modmr.portal.gov.bd/sites/default/files/files/modmr.portal.gov.bd/policies/c0400c48_11eb_4a8f_a27a_2ae7bbb8f0a4/Nataional_Plan_for_Disaster__2010_2015__Final_Version-.pdf

National Plan for Disaster Management,2016-2020, Date of access: 12/03/2019 https://modmr.portal.gov.bd/sites/default/files/files/modmr.portal.gov.bd/page/a7c2b9e1_6c9d_4ecf_bb53_ec74653e6d05/NPDM(2016-2020)_Draft%2003%20April%20%202017%20(1).docx

Paris Agreement, 2015, Website of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), Date of access: 12/03/2019 https://www.undp.org/content/undp/en/home/sustainable-development-goals.html

Protocol relating to the Status of Refugees, 1967, in: Collection of International and Regional Instruments related to Refugee Protection, 2007, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), Dhaka, Bangladesh

Shamsuddoha, Md., Khan, S M Munjurul Hannan, Raihan, Sajid and Hossain, Tanjir, 2012, Displacement and Migration from Climate Hot-spots in Bangladesh: Causes and Consequences, p. 18, Action Aid Bangladesh, Date of access: 12/03/2019 https://unfccc.int/files/adaptation/groups_committees/loss_and_damage_executive_committee/application/pdf/displacement_and_migration_in_bangladesh.pdf

State Acquisition and Tenancy Act, 1950, (East Bengal Act No.XXVIII of 1951), Bangladesh Code, Volume X, January, 2007, Government of the Peoples’ Republic of Bangladesh, Ministry of Law, Justice and Parliamentary Affairs

Sustainable Development Goals, 2015, Website of United Nations Development Programme, Date of access: 12/03/2019, https://www.undp.org/content/undp/en/home/sustainable-development-goals.html

Test Relief Implementation Guide, Website of Ministry Disaster Management and Relief, Date of access: 12/03/2019, https://modmr.gov.bd/site/files/b53a7fa5-24dc-4cf7-bed0-0b5ea0af6fe7/%E0%A6%9F%E0%A6%BF-%E0%A6%86%E0%A6%B0-%E0%A6%AC%E0%A6%BE%E0%A6%B8%E0%A7%8D%E0%A6%A4%E0%A6%AC%E0%A6%BE%E0%A7%9F%E0%A6%A8-%E0%A6%A8%E0%A6%BF%E0%A6%B0%E0%A7%8D%E0%A6%A6%E0%A7%87%E0%A6%B6%E0%A6%BF%E0%A6%95%E0%A6%BE

Thirty Million, Raw Cinematics, (Funded by- UNDP), Date of access: 12/03/2019, https://vimeo.com/170108444

Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 1948, in: Collection of International and Regional Instruments related to Refugee Protection, 2007, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Published
2019-06-25
How to Cite
Gupta, M. (2019). Socio-Legal Perspectives of Climate Displaced Persons in Bangladesh. Proceedings of The International Conference on Climate Change, 3(1), 18-34. https://doi.org/10.17501/2513258X.2019.3102