Developing Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS) – Based Questions: Indonesian EFL Teachers’ Challenges

  • Mei Ardaning Tyas Graduate School of English Education Department, Sebelas Maret University
  • Joko Nurkamto Graduate School of English Education Department, Sebelas Maret University
  • Sri Marmanto Graduate School of English Education Department, Sebelas Maret University
  • Hening Laksani Graduate School of English Education Department, Sebelas Maret University
Keywords: Higher Order Thinking Skills, HOTS, EFL Teachers' Challenges, HOTS - Based Questions

Abstract

The significance of critical thinking as one of the 21st century skills makes the Indonesian Ministry of Education and Culture integrate Higher Order Thinking Skill (HOTS) in the latest national curriculum. It requires teachers, as the curriculum implementers, facilitate students to be critical thinkers through the teaching and learning process. Besides, the teachers need to have competence in developing HOTS – based questions in order to assess the students’ HOTS. However, teachers’ ability in this field is still disappointing. The aim of this study was to investigate the challenges faced by Indonesia English as Foreign Language (EFL) teachers in developing HOTS – based questions. The study employed qualitative method and made use of questionnaire to collect the data. The research participants were EFL teachers of secondary school level in some different regions in Indonesia. The findings showed that, despite the importance of HOTS, some factors were claimed as challenges for the teachers in developing HOTS – based questions, among others was the teachers’ varied-perceptions towards HOTS. The challenges were classified into three aspects, namely teachers’ aspect, teaching and learning aspects, and students’ aspect. Hence, the conclusion was drawn to improve educational practice and as insights for educational stakeholders and policy makers.

References

Ahmad, D. (2014). Understanding the 2013 curriculum of English teaching through the teachers’ and policymakers’ perspectives. International Journal of Enhanced Research in Educational Development (IJERED), 2(4), 6–15.

Anderson, L. W., & Krathwohl, D. R. (2001). A Taxonomy for Learning , Teaching , and Assessing : A Revision of Bloom ’ s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives. Spring, 83(4), 212–220.

Ayvaz-Tuncel, Z., & Çobanoğlu, F. (2018). In-service Teacher Training: Problems of the Teachers as Learners. International Journal of Instruction, 11(4), 159–174. https://doi.org/10.12973/iji.2018.11411a

Brookhart, S. M. (2010). How to assess higher-order thinking skills in your classroom. ASCD.

Choy, S. C., & Cheah, P. K. (2009). Teacher perceptions of critical thinking among students and its influence on higher education. International Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education, 2(20), 198–206.

Collins, R. (2014). Skills for the 21st Century: teaching higher-order thinking. Curriculum & Leadership Journal, 12(14).

Daud, N. M. (2017). Integrating Hots Into Language Classes in the 21 St. The First Education and Language International Conference Proceedings Center for International Language Development of Unissula, 29–36.

Duncan, A. (2009). Statement from US Secretary of Education Arne Duncan on results of NAEP Arts 2008 assessment. Retrieved from www.ed.gov/news/pressreleases/2009/06/06152009.html.

Dwyer, C., Hogan, M., & Stewart, I. (2014). Dwyer, C., Hogan, M., & Stewart, I. (2014). ‘An integrated critical thinking framework for the 21st century’. Thinking Skills & Creativity, 43–52.

Fauziati, E. (2017). Teaching English as a Foreign Language (TEFL II): Principle and Practice. Surakarta: Era Pustaka Utama.

Feng, Z. (2013). Using Teacher Questions to Enhance EFL Students’ Critical Thinking Ability. Journal of Curriculum and Teaching, 2(2), 147–153. https://doi.org/10.5430/jct.v2n2p147

Hashim, H., Ali, M. N., & Shamsudin, M. A. (2018). Infusing High Order Thinking Skills (HOTs) through Thinking Based Learning (TBL) during ECA to enhance students interest in STEM. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 7(11), 1191–1199. https://doi.org/10.6007/ijarbss/v7-i11/3557

Jannah, S. M. (2018). TEACHERS’ BELIEFS ON TEACHING READING TO ACHIEVE HIGHER ORDER THINKING SKILLS (HOTs): A CASE STUDY AT SMA ABBS SURAKARTA. Retrieved from http://eprints.ums.ac.id/59981/12/02 PUBLICATION MANUSCRIPT.pdf

Larson, L. C., & Miller, T. N. (2012). 21st Century Skills: Prepare Students for the Future. Kappa Delta Pi Record, 47(3), 121–123. https://doi.org/10.1080/00228958.2011.10516575

Lee, S. M. (2014). The relationships between higher order thinking skills, cognitive density, and social presence in online learning. Internet and Higher Education, 21, 41–52. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.iheduc.2013.12.002

Miles, M. B., & Huberman, A. M. (1994). Qualitative data analysis. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.

Ministry of Education and Culture. (2017). Modul Penyusunan Soal Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS). Jakarta: Ministry of Education and Culture.

Mishra, R., & Kotecha, K. (2016). Are we there Yet! Inclusion of Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTs) in Assessment. Journal of Engineering Education Transformations, 0(0), 2–5. https://doi.org/10.16920/jeet/2016/v0i0/85686

Moodley, V. (2015). In-service teacher education: asking questions for higher order thinking in visual literacy. South African Journal of Education, 33(2), 1–18. https://doi.org/10.15700/saje.v33n2a430

National Education Association. (2012). Preparing 21st century students for a global society: An educator’s guide to the “Four Cs.” Alexandria, VA: National Education Association.

Öqvist, A., & Malmström, M. (2018). What motivates students? A study on the effects of teacher leadership and students’ self-efficacy. International Journal of Leadership in Education, 21(2), 155–175. https://doi.org/10.1080/13603124.2017.1355480

Retnawati, H., Djidu, H., Kartianom, Apino, E., & Anazifa, R. D. (2018). Teachers’ knowledge about higher-order thinking skills and its learning strategy. Problem of Education in the 21st Century, 76(2), 215–230. Retrieved from http://oaji.net/articles/2017/457-1524597598.pdf

Saavedra, A. R., & Opfer, V. D. (2012). Learning 21st-century skills requires 21st-century teaching. Phi Delta Kappan, (October), 8–13. https://doi.org/10.1177/003172171209400203

Seman, S. C., Yusoff, W. M. W., & Embong, R. (2017). Teachers Challenges in Teaching and Learning for Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS) in Primary School. International Journal of Asian Social Science, 7(7), 534–545. https://doi.org/10.18488/journal.1.2017.77.534.545

Setyarini, S., Muslim, A. B., Rukmini, D., Yuliasri, I., & Mujianto, Y. (2018). Thinking critically while storytelling: Improving children’s HOTS and English oral competence. Indonesian Journal of Applied Linguistics, 8(1), 189–197. https://doi.org/10.17509/ijal.v8i1.11480

Singh, C. K. S., Singh, R. K. A., Singh, T. S. M., Mostafa, N. A., & Mohtar, T. M. T. (2018). Developing a Higher Order Thinking Skills Module for Weak ESL Learners. English Language Teaching, 11(7), 86. https://doi.org/10.5539/elt.v11n7p86

Smith, V. G., & Szymanski, A. (2013). Critical Thinking : More Than Test Scores. NCPEA International Journal of Educational Leadership Preparation, 8(2), 16–26.

Sulaiman, T., Muniyan, V., Madhvan, D., Ehsan, S. D., Persekutuan, W., & Lumpur, K. (2017). International Research Journal of Education and Sciences ( IRJES ). International Research Journal of Education and Sciences (IRJES), 1(1), 2550–2158. Retrieved from www.masree.info Manuscript

Weber, R. P. (1990). Basic content analysis (Vol. 49). SAGE.

Yusoff, W. M. W., & Seman, S. C. (2018). Teachers’ Knowledge of Higher Order Thinking and Questioning Skills: A Case Study at a Primary School in Terengganu, Malaysia. DEVELOPMENT, 7(2).

Published
2019-10-25
How to Cite
Tyas, M., Nurkamto, J., Marmanto, S., & Laksani, H. (2019). Developing Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS) – Based Questions: Indonesian EFL Teachers’ Challenges. Proceedings of the International Conference on Future of Education, 2(1), 52-63. https://doi.org/10.17501/26307413.2019.2106