FIRST REPORT OF BIG ONION FLOWER MOLD CAUSED BY Aspergillus niger on Allium cepa L. in SRI LANKA

  • W.M.K. Fernando Field Crops Research and Development Institute, Department of Agriculture, Sri Lanka
  • R.S.W. Wijeratnam Industrial Technology Institute, Colombo, Sri Lanka
  • D.M.J.B. Senanayaka Rice Research and Development Institute, Department of Agriculture, Sri Lanka
  • C.M. Nanayakkara Faculty of Sciences, University of Colombo, Sri Lanka
  • W.A.R. Dhammika Field Crops Research and Development Institute, Department of Agriculture, Sri Lanka
  • W.M.W. Weerakoon Department of Agriculture, Sri Lanka
  • A.M. Perera Field Crops Research and Development Institute, Department of Agriculture, Sri Lanka
  • W.M.S.D.K. Wijerathna Field Crops Research and Development Institute, Department of Agriculture, Sri Lanka
  • D.M.K. Dissanayake Field Crops Research and Development Institute, Department of Agriculture, Sri Lanka
Keywords: Aspergillus, Black mold, Flower, Onion, Sri Lanka

Abstract

Big onion is a main cash crop grown in Sri Lanka. However, the crop is highly susceptible to diseases: anthracnose, purple blotch, bulb rot and black mold. Although black mold disease symptoms are associated with the onion bulb, black moldy growth on onion flowers has been observed to be spreading in Sri Lanka during the last decade resulting in the reduction of quantity and quality of onion seeds.  Hence, this study was conducted with the objective of isolation and identification of causal agents of the onion flower mold. Big onion flower samples with mold symptoms were collected during Maha season 2016/17 from the major onion growing areas of Anuradhapura and Matale districts.  Four organisms were isolated from onion flower:  Aspergillus, Penicillium, Collectrotichum and Altenaria. Out of the four, Aspergillus dominated.  Hence, Aspergillus sp. isolated from onion flowers was compared with the causative agent of black mold of onion bulbs. Koch’s postulation studies of flower and bulb inoculation with respective Aspergillus isolates resulted the same black color molds in the flower and bulb Inoculation of other fungal isolates did not show the black old symptoms in flower and bulb. PCR amplification with ITS1/ITS4 universal primers confirmed the isolated Aspergillus from flower as well as bulb are to be A. niger. Results confirmed that the onion flower black mould disease is caused by A. niger: the causal organism of onion bulb black mold as well.

References

Black, L., Conn, K., Gabor, B., Kao, J., and Lutton, J., 2012, Onion disease guide. A practical guide for seedsmen, growers and Agricultural Advisors (Seminis Plant Health, USA).

Candlish, A.A.G., Pearson, S.M., Aidoo, K.E., Smith J.E., Kell, B., and Irvine, H., 2001, A survey of ethnic foods for microbial quality and aflatoxin content. Food Addit Contaminants, 18:129-136.

El-Nagerabi, S.A.F., Ahmed, A.H.M., Elshafie, A.E., 2016, In vitro evaluation of selected plant extracts as biocontrol agents against black mold (Aspergillus niger Van Tieghem) of onion bulbs (Allium cepa L.). Science and Technology, 5 (1): 147-152.

Gunawardana, K.N.C., Fernando, W.M.K., Fernando, H.N.S., and Renuka, K.A., 2015, Technical bulletin on pest, disease and nutrient disorders identification of other field crops (Department of Agriculture, Sri Lanka).

Gupta, R., Khokhar, M.K., and Lal, R., 2012, Management of the Black Mould Disease of Onion. Indian Journal of plant pathology and micro biology, 3:133.

Hayden, N.J., and Maude, R.B., 1992, the role of seed-borne Aspergillus niger in transmission of black mould of onion. Plant Pathology, 41: 573-581.

Hayden, N.J., Maude, R.B., Proctor, F.J., 1994, Studies on the biology of black mold (Aspergillus niger) on temperate and tropical onions- A comparison of sources of the disease in temperate and tropical field crops. Plant Pathology, 43: 562-569.

Koycu, N.D., and Ozer, N., 1997, Determination of seed borne fungi in onion and their transmission to onion set. Phytoparasitica, 25: 25-31.

McDonald, M.R., Jaime, M.A., and Hovius, M.H.Y., 2004, Management of diseases of onions and garlic. In Diseases of fruits and vegetables. eds. Naqvi, S.A.M.H. Kluwer (Academic Publishers. The Netherlands). 2:149-200.

Ole, H., Torben L., Lars, P.C., Ulla, K., Nazmul, H., and Shakuntala, H.A., 2004, Contents of Iron Zinc, and β - ca-rotene in commonly consumed vegetables in Bangladesh. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 17: 587-595.

Paster, N., Menasherov, M., Ravid, U., and Juven, B., 1995, Antifungal activity of oregano and thyme essential oils applied as fumigants against fungi attacking stored grain. Journal of Food protects, 58:81-85.

Popp, J., and Hantos, K., 2011. The impact of crop protection on agricultural production, Studies in Agricultural Economics, Research Institute of Agricultural Economics, Budapest, Hungary, pp. 47-66.

Quadri, S.M.H., Srivastava, K.J., Bhonde, S. R., Pandey, U.B., and Bhagchandani, P.M., 1982. Fungicidal bioassay against certain important pathogens of onion, Pesticides, 16: 11-16.

Rajam, S.R., 1992. Studies on the post-harvest fungal spoilage of onion. M. Sc. Ag.) Thesis (Unpublished), Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore.

Rajapakse, R.G.A.S., Fariz, F.S., Wickramarachchi,.W.A.R.T, Dissanayake, D.M.K.K. Premarathne, M.P.T., and Kahawatte, K.J.P.K., 2016, Morphological and molecular characterization of Trichoderma isolates used as bio control agents in Sri Lanka. Tropical Agriculturists, Vol. 164.

Sibi, G., Awasthi, S., Dhananjaya, K., Mallesha, H., and Ravikumar, K.R., 2012, Comparative studies of Plumeria species for their phyto-chemical and antifungal properties against Citrus sinensis pathogens. Int J Agri Res, 7(6): 324-331.

Sinclair, P.J., and Letham, D.B., 1996, Incidence and sites of visible infection of Aspergillus niger on bulbs of two onion (Allium cepa) cultivars. Australian Plant Pathology, 25: 8- 11.

Sinclair, P.J., and Letham, D.B., 1996, Incidence and sites of visible infection of Aspergillus niger on bulbs of two onion (Allium cepa) cultivars. Australasian Plant Pathology, 25: 8-11.

Sirois, K..L., LoParco, D.P., and Lorbeer, J.W., 1998. Development of a bioassay to determine the presence of specified fungal pathogen of onion. In: Proceedings of the 7th Biennial National Onion (and Other Allium) Research Conference, California, 10-12 December 1998, pp. 231-237.

Soliman, K.M., and Badea, R.I., 2002, Effect of oil extracted from some medicinal plants on different myco-toxigenic fungi. Food Chem. Toxicology, 40: 1669-1675.

Sumner, D.R., 1995. Diseases of bulbs caused by fungi -Black mold. Schwartz, F. and Mohan, S.K.. eds. Compendium of onion and garlic disease (APS press. St. Paul, Minn.). pp 26-27.

Tysoni, J.L., and Fullerton, R.A., 2004, Effect of soil borne inoculums on incidence of onion black mold (Aspergillus niger). New Zealand Plant Protection, 57: 138-141.

Wani, A.H., and Taskeen., 2011, Management of black mold rot of onion. Mycopathology, 9: 43-49.

White, T.J., Bruns, T., Lee, S., and Taylor, J.W., 1990. Amplification and direct sequencing of fungal ribosomal RNA genes for phylogenetics. In: Innis, M.A., Gefand, D.H., Sninsky, J.J. and White, T.J. (Eds.), PCR Protocols: A Guide to Methods and Applications (Academic press, New York). pp. 315-322.

Published
2018-12-31
How to Cite
Fernando, W., Wijeratnam, R., Senanayaka, D., Nanayakkara, C., Dhammika, W., Weerakoon, W., Perera, A., Wijerathna, W., & Dissanayake, D. (2018). FIRST REPORT OF BIG ONION FLOWER MOLD CAUSED BY Aspergillus niger on Allium cepa L. in SRI LANKA. Proceedings of the International Conference on Agriculture, 5(1), 7-14. https://doi.org/10.17501/26827018.2018.5102