Organic Waste Composting: A Resource Recovery Approach towards Sustainable Environment

  • Maria Abdullah Butt University of Management and Technology
  • Hafiz Muhammad Umer Aslam Department of Chemistry, School of Science, University of Management and Technology, Johar Town, Lahore, Pakistan
  • Firdaus-e- Bareen University of the Punjab, Lahore
  • Muhammad Shafiq University of the Punjab, Lahore
  • Farhan Ahmad Butt Albert-Ludwigs University, Freiburg, Germany
  • Maham Shahid University of the Punjab, Lahore
  • Amna Javaid University of the Punjab, Lahore
  • Ahmed Husnain University of the Punjab, Lahore
Keywords: Composting, Resource Recovery, Waste Management, Sustainability


Organic waste (including kitchen, garden/lawn, and agricultural waste) were subject
to composting through static pile and soil pit composting techniques to determine the best
method for managing the organic fraction of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW). These
conventional methods were used with some innovations (by using soil as seed compost and
aeration assembly) to increase the efficiency while keeping the process cost effective.
Quantitative parameter analysis of initial feedstocks such as weight, moisture content (MC)
and bulk density (BD) were measured before setting up each experiment. Temperature
variation was monitored on a daily basis and measurement of CO2 emission on weekly basis.
Moreover, mixing of feedstock for aeration and applying water for optimum moisture content
were also subject to weekly activities. Final compost from each experiment was analyzed
against physical and chemical parameters such as colour, MC, BD, water holding capacity, pH
and electrical conductivity. Aerobic soil pit showed better results among other composting
techniques with with BD of 530±0.01 kg/m3
, MC 37.40±0.26 %, water holding capacity
94±0.45 %, pH 8.00±0.10 and electrical conductivity 1.06±14.42 dS/m. Based on the
experiment’s results, there were two conclusions drawn, first the application of soil proved to
be very helpful as seed compost in a static pile showing good results. Secondly, soil pit
composting with modification of passive aeration also proved it as a potential technique to
manage organic waste.


Bellemare, M.F., M. Çakir, et al. (2017) - On the measurement of food waste American Journal of Agricultural

Economics. 99, 5, 1148-1158.

Boldrin, A., J.K. Andersen, et al. (2009) - Composting and compost utilization: accounting of greenhouse gases

and global warming contributions Waste Management & Research. 27, 8, 800-812.

Chang, J.I., J.J. Tsai, et al. (2006) - Composting of vegetable waste Waste Manag Res. 24, 4, 354-362.

Clemente, R., T. Pardo, et al. (2015) - Food byproducts as amendments in trace elements contaminated soils

Food Research International. 73, 176-189.

De Bertoldi, M. (2013) - The science of composting, Springer Science & Business Media.

Demirbas, A. (2011) - Waste management, waste resource facilities and waste conversion processes Energy

Conversion and Management. 52, 2, 1280-1287.

Gabhane, J., S.P. William, et al. (2012) - Additives aided composting of green waste: Effects on organic matter

degradation, compost maturity, and quality of the finished compost Bioresource Technology. 114, 382-388.

Galanakis, C.M. (2012) - Recovery of high added-value components from food wastes: Conventional, emerging

technologies and commercialized applications Trends in Food Science & Technology. 26, 2, 68-87.

Guo, R., G. Li, et al. (2012) - Effect of aeration rate, C/N ratio and moisture content on the stability and maturity

of compost Bioresource Technology. 112, 171-178.

Halloran, A., J. Clement, et al. (2014) - Addressing food waste reduction in Denmark Food Policy. 49, 294-301.

Huang, K., F. Li, et al. (2014) - Effects of earthworms on physicochemical properties and microbial profiles

during vermicomposting of fresh fruit and vegetable wastes Bioresour Technol. 170, 45-52.

Inckel, M., P. de Smet, et al. (2005) - The preparation and use of compost Agromisa foundations Wage-ningen

seventh edition.

Karak, T., R.M. Bhagat, et al. (2012) - Municipal Solid Waste Generation, Composition, and Management: The

World Scenario Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology. 42, 15, 1509-1630.

Kerouac, P.E. (2000) - Vessel composting process and apparatus, Google Patents.

Larney, F.J. and X. Hao. (2007) - A review of composting as a management alternative for beef cattle feedlot

manure in southern Alberta, Canada Bioresource Technology. 98, 17, 3221-3227.

Larney, F.J., D.M. Sullivan, et al. (2006) - The role of composting in recycling manure nutrients Canadian

Journal of Soil Science. 86, 4, 597-611.

Marshall, R.E. and K. Farahbakhsh. (2013) - Systems approaches to integrated solid waste management in

developing countries Waste Management. 33, 4, 988-1003.

Moh, Y. and L. Abd Manaf. (2017) - Solid waste management transformation and future challenges of source

separation and recycling practice in Malaysia Resources, Conservation and Recycling. 116, 1-14.

Nasreen, Z. and J.I. Qazi. (2012) - Lab scale composting of fruits and vegetable waste at elevated temperature

and forced aeration Pak. J. Zool. 44, 5, 1285-1290.

Ndegwa, P. and S. Thompson. (2001) - Integrating composting and vermicomposting in the treatment and

bioconversion of biosolids Bioresource Technology. 76, 2, 107-112.

Pan, I., B. Dam, et al. (2012) - Composting of common organic wastes using microbial inoculants 3 Biotech. 2,

, 127-134.

Panda, S.K., S.S. Mishra, et al. (2016) - Microbial-processing of fruit and vegetable wastes for production of

vital enzymes and organic acids: Biotechnology and scopes Environ Res. 146, 161-172.

Plazzotta, S., L. Manzocco, et al. (2017) - Fruit and vegetable waste management and the challenge of fresh-cut

salad Trends in Food Science & Technology. 63, 51-59.

Proietti, P., R. Calisti, et al. (2016) - Composting optimization: Integrating cost analysis with the physicalchemical properties of materials to be composted Journal of Cleaner Production. 137, 1086-1099.

Qian, X., G. Shen, et al. (2014) - Co-composting of livestock manure with rice straw: Characterization and

establishment of maturity evaluation system Waste Management. 34, 2, 530-535.

Rasapoor, M., T. Nasrabadi, et al. (2009) - The effects of aeration rate on generated compost quality, using

aerated static pile method Waste Management. 29, 2, 570-573.

Rogger, C., F. Beaurain, et al. (2011) - Composting projects under the Clean Development Mechanism:

sustainable contribution to mitigate climate change Waste Management. 31, 1, 138-146.

Schaub, S.M. and J.J. Leonard. (1996) - Composting: An alternative waste management option for food

processing industries Trends in Food Science & Technology. 7, 8, 263-268.

Sitorus, B., Sukandar, et al. (2013) - Biogas Recovery from Anaerobic Digestion Process of Mixed Fruit -

Vegetable Wastes Energy Procedia. 32, 176-182.

Trautmann, N. and M. Krasny (2014) - Composting in the Classroom: Scientific Inquiry for High School


Tumuhairwe, J.B., J.S. Tenywa, et al. (2009) - Comparison of four low-technology composting methods for

market crop wastes Waste Management. 29, 8, 2274-2281.

Velmurugan, B., and R. Alwar Ramanujam. (2011) - Anaerobic digestion of vegetable wastes for biogas

production in a fed-batch reactor International Journal of Emerging Sciences. 1, 3, 478.

Wang, K., C. He, et al. (2015) - Transformation of organic matters in animal wastes during composting Journal

of Hazardous Materials. 300, 745-753.

Yaghmaeian, K., M. Malakootian, et al. (2005) - Comparison between Windrow and Pit Composting of Poultry

Wastes, Leaves and Garbage of Municipal Solid Waste in Damghan, Iran Journal of Environmental Health

Science & Engineering. 2, 1, 22-27.

Zhou, H., A. Meng, et al. (2014) - Classification and comparison of municipal solid waste based on

thermochemical characteristics Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association. 64, 5, 597-616.

Zhou, J.-M. (2017) - The Effect of Different C/N Ratios on the Composting of Pig Manure and Edible Fungus

Residue with Rice Bran Compost Science & Utilization. 25, 2, 120-129.

How to Cite
Butt, M., Aslam, H., Bareen, F.- e-, Shafiq, M., Butt, F., Shahid, M., Javaid, A., & Husnain, A. (2019). Organic Waste Composting: A Resource Recovery Approach towards Sustainable Environment. Proceedings of the World Conference on Waste Management, 1(2), 30-41.