Review of Land Laws of Odisha in Gendered Human Right Perspective

  • Beenita Meher Khoj Avam Janjagriti Samti
Keywords: Gender equality, Women’s land ownership, Land laws of Odisha, Human Rights

Abstract

Land rights and human rights are interdependent and indistinguishably linked; as human rights to food, livelihood, housing, health, and access to natural resources can be realized through the right to access, use, and control of the land. Access to land has a direct implication on access to many economic, social rights and as a gateway to access civil and political rights of women subsequently ensures their human rights. Despite the fact, the major share of labor contributed by women in the production of food, their land ownership compressed to few patches only. This paper is based on the review of varying preconditions and circumstance in the revenue code, land-related policies and program of Odisha (India) influencing women’s land rights and impacting their human rights. The  state laws on inheritance, land reform, and other statutory land laws, correspondingly policies, executive orders are taken into the review to comprehend the viability of women land ownership in the context of owning, access, control, and usage. Synthesis finds that women land ownership  determined on the basis of their relationship with the male member of the family being as a mother, sister, wife, and daughter conjugated with the marital status of the women. Complex and lengthy revenue administrative process infeasible for rural women to access the land through inheritance and government land allocation far to achieve gender equality in terms of possession over land, plot size. Conditions are in contradiction with CEDAW and other human rights frameworks. Gaps in standard definition and interpretation of “family”, and gender-biased annual income estimation by the revenue official restraint landless women to receive the benefit of government land allocation program. Update of century-old land records, gender mainstreaming of the land governance system, and land legal support system for women can increase women land ownership through inheritance law to a significant number in Odisha.

References

(n.d.). Retrieved November 21, 2020, from https://dea.gov.in/sites/default/files/Benami%20Transaction_Prohibition_%20Act1988.pdf

What are Human Rights . (n.d.). Retrieved November 21, 2020, from United Nation Human Rights,Office of the High Commissioner : http://www.ohchr.org/EN/Issues/Pages/WhatareHumanRights.aspx;

The Hindu Succession Act . (1956).

Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous People,art,26(1). (2007, September 13). Retrieved November 21, 2020, from United Nations : https://www.un.org/esa/socdev/unpfii/documents/DRIPS_en.pdf

Support for Single Women. (2014, January Tuesday, 7). The statesman.

Women Development. (2016). Retrieved Nov 21, 2020, from WCD Odisha: http://wcdodisha.gov.in/Application/uploadDocuments/plugin/doc20170729_123119.pdf

A.Valera, H. G., Yamano, T., Puskar, R., Veettil, P. C., Gupta, I., & Phoeba Recarte, R. R. (September 2018). WOMEN’S LAND TITLE OWNERSHIP AND EMPOWERMENT: EVIDENCE FROM INDIA. Asian development bank .

Acts and Rules . (n.d.). Retrieved November 21, 2020, from Revenue and Disaster Management Department,Government of Odisha: http://revenueodisha.gov.in/sites/default/files/Acts_Rules/Acts/OLR_Act.pdf

Agarwal, B. (1994). A Field Of One's Own: Gender and Land Rights in South Asia. Cambridge university,Cambridge.

Agarwal, B. (2005, October 17). Old Story. Retrieved November 22, 2020, from Indian Express: http://archive.indianexpress.com/oldStory/80167/

Agarwal, B. (2017, Jan 24). Document:Bina-Agarwal. Retrieved Nov 21, 2020, from Scribd: https://www.scribd.com/document/337385683/Bina-Agarwal

Agarwal, B. (n.d.). Gender and Command over Property: An economic analysis of South Asia .

Budlender, D., & Alma, E. (2011). Women and Land: Women Securing Rights for Better Lives.Ottawa. (International Development Research Centre (IDRC)) Retrieved November 22, 2020, from IDRC Digital Library : https://idl-bnc-idrc.dspacedirect.org/bitstream/handle/10625/47431/IDL-47431.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y

Budlender, D., & Alma, E. (2011). Women and Land: Women Securing Rights for Better Lives.Ottawa. (International Development Research Centre (IDRC)) Retrieved Mar. 2013, from <http://www.idrc.ca/EN/Resources/ Publications/Pages/IDRCBookDetails.aspx?PublicationID=1014>.

CEDAW. (n.d.). Retrieved November 21, 2020, from United Nations Human Rights, Office of the High Commissioner: https://www.ohchr.org/en/professionalinterest/pages/cedaw.aspx

Daley, E., Flower, C., Miggiano, L., & Pallas, S. ( 2013, January). Rural Women:International Land Coalition . Retrieved November 22, 2020, from OHCHR: https://www.ohchr.org/Documents/HRBodies/CEDAW/RuralWomen/InternationalLandCoalition.pdf

Daley, E., Flower, C., Miggiano, L., & Pallas, S. (January 2013). Women’s land rights and gender justice in land governance: pillars in the promotion and protection of women’s human rights in rural areas. International Land Coalition.

Elisabeth Wickeri, A. K. (2011). Land Rights Issues in International Human Rights Law. Institute for Human Rights and Business, pp. 1-2.

Elisabeth Wickeri, A. K. (n.d.). Land Rights Issues in International Human Rights Law. Institute for Human Rights and Business, pp. 1-2.

Gilbert, J. (2013). Land Right as Human Right:The case for a specific right to land. SSRN Electronic Journal10, 115-134.

Gilbert, J. (Vol-10, n-18,June 2013). Land Right as Human Right:The case for a specific right to land. International Journal on Human Rights .

Gupta, J. (2002, January). Women Second in the Land Agenda. Economc and Political Weekly.

Home:Mutation. (n.d.). Retrieved November 22, 2020, from Revenue and Disaster Mangement Department,Government of Odisha: http://revenueodisha.gov.in/?q=node/264

Jain, D. (n.d.). To be or not to be:The location of women n public policy.

Jaising, M. I. (n.d.). MAPPING WOMEN’S GAINS IN INHERITANCE AND PROPERTY RIGHTS UNDER THE HINDU SUCCESSION ACT, 1956 . LAWYERS COLLECTIVE WOMEN’S RIGHTS INITIATIVE .

Jaisingh, M. (2019). Mapping Women's gain in inheritance and property rights under the Hindu Succession Act,1956. LCWRI.

Kumar, S. (1978). Role of the Household Economy in Child Nutrition at Low Incomes. (p. Occasional Paper No.95). Dept of Agricultural Economics, Cornell University.

Mehta, A. (April 17, 2018). IHDS. Business Standard.

Millon Kothari, S. K. (2006). The human right to adequate housing and land. New Delhi: National Human Rights Commission .

Patnaik, S., & Pardhan, S. (2013, April 11). Securing Land Rights for Women through Institutional and Policy Reforms. Retrieved November 21, 2020, from Landesa: https://www.landesa.org/wp-content/uploads/Securing-Land-Rights-for-Women-through-Institutional-and-Policy-Reforms-264-Pradhan.pdf

Pranab Choudhury, M. B. (n.d.). Researchgate. Retrieved November 21, 2020, from Researchgate: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/298786180_Gender_Equitable_Land_Governance_in_Odisha_India_An_analysis_through_VGGT-Gender_Lens

Pranab R Choudhury, M. K. (2016). Gender Equitable Land Governance in Odisha, India. World Bank Conference on land and Poverty , (p. 3).

Robin Mearns, S. S. (1999, Dec). Retrieved from http://www.worldbank.org/html/dec/Publication/Workpapers/home.html.

Robin Mearns, S. S. (1999). Social exclusion and Land administration in Orissa,India. Washington DC: World Bank.

Published
2021-03-23
How to Cite
Meher, B. (2021). Review of Land Laws of Odisha in Gendered Human Right Perspective. Proceedings of the International Conference on Gender and Sexuality, 2(1), 32-50. https://doi.org/10.17501/26028611.2020.2104